Collision B.Sc Notes Mechanics

**Mechanics:**

**Definition:** Mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of motion, the forces that cause motion, and the mathematical description of these motions. It is a fundamental field in classical physics that forms the basis for understanding the behavior of physical objects, from macroscopic bodies to microscopic particles.

**Collision:**

**Definition:** A collision refers to an event in physics where two or more objects come into contact with each other, resulting in a change in the objects’ velocities and, in some cases, alterations to their shapes or internal structures. Collisions are a fundamental concept in classical mechanics and are crucial for understanding the motion and interactions of objects.

### Elastic and Inelastic Collision:

**Elastic Collision:**- Both kinetic energy and momentum are conserved. The colliding objects rebound off each other without any loss of energy.

**Inelastic Collision:**- Momentum is conserved, but kinetic energy is not. Some or all of the initial kinetic energy is transformed into other forms, such as internal energy or deformation.

### Law of Conservation of Momentum:

**Explanation:**The law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of an isolated system of objects remains constant if no external forces are acting on it. Mathematically, the total momentum before a collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision.

### Loss of Kinetic Energy:

**Explanation:**In inelastic collisions, there is a loss of kinetic energy as some of the initial kinetic energy is transformed into other forms. This loss is typically due to internal factors like deformation or the generation of heat.

### Oblique Collision:

**Explanation:**An oblique collision occurs when two objects collide at an angle, rather than directly head-on. Analyzing oblique collisions involves considering both linear and angular components of motion.

### Impulse of Blow:

**Explanation:**Impulse is the change in momentum of an object and is equal to the force applied multiplied by the time over which the force acts. The impulse of a blow is crucial in understanding the resulting motion in collisions.

### Impact with Smooth Plane:

**Explanation:**In physics, a smooth plane refers to a frictionless surface. When an object collides with a smooth plane, there is no loss of energy due to friction, and the collision’s dynamics are influenced primarily by the object’s initial properties.

### Moment of Force *F* about *O*:

**Explanation:**The moment of force, or torque (*τ*), about a point*O*is the measure of the tendency of the force to rotate an object about that point. Mathematically,*τ*=*r*×*F*, where*r*is the position vector from*O*to the point of application of the force*F*.

### Angular Momentum of a Particle:

**Explanation:**Angular momentum (*L*) of a particle is the product of its moment of inertia (*I*) and angular velocity (*ω*). Mathematically,*L*=*Iω*.

### Conservation Force:

**Explanation:**A conservation force is a force that does no work and conserves mechanical energy. Examples include tension in a massless string or the normal force in certain idealized situations.

### Principle of Linear Momentum:

**Explanation:**The principle of linear momentum states that the total linear momentum of an isolated system remains constant if no external forces act on it. It is based on the law of conservation of linear momentum.

### Principle of Angular Momentum:

**Explanation:**The principle of angular momentum states that the total angular momentum of an isolated system remains constant if no external torques act on it. It is based on the conservation of angular momentum.

### Moment of Inertia:

**Explanation:**Moment of inertia (*I*) is a measure of an object’s resistance to changes in its rotation. The larger the moment of inertia, the harder it is to change the object’s rotation.

These terms are fundamental in classical mechanics and play a crucial role in understanding the motion and interactions of objects, particularly in the context of collisions and rotational dynamics.

### Collision B.Sc Notes Mechanics

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